It is a journalist's job to find news and to report on it as quickly as possible, in an arresting and engaging style.
Whether reporting on a local planning decision or a dramatic international conflict, journalists play a key role in society. They keep communities informed and satisfy the public's right to know.
Most journalists start out as general news reporters. Their daily tasks might include:
Reporters may use shorthand or tape recorders, or a combination, to take records of what is said. They type their stories onto computer.
The work involves close working with colleagues, such as photographers. A news editor usually assigns tasks to reporters.
Other types of journalist include:
The rolling deadlines of news operations can make the work demanding. Even weekly newspapers and magazines often have daily requirements to 'fill' a certain number of pages. There is often pressure to get stories in advance of rivals.
Getting the required information can be challenging. Some people are wary of journalists, or may simply want to conceal information.
Journalists also need to make sure every story is balanced - giving all parties a chance to have their say. Awareness of the law is important too: an unjustified allegation could expose the news organisation to a potentially expensive court case.
Journalists generally work 39 hours a week, but sometimes more. The hours depend on the production deadlines of the news organisation. For example, core hours on an evening newspaper may be 8am to 4.30pm, or for a morning newspaper, 10am to 6pm.
Long and unpredictable hours are common, especially when responding to major incidents. Journalists may be expected to attend evening meetings. Some work shifts, including early starts, nights and some weekends and holidays.
Part-time work is not common. However, many journalists work freelance.
Journalists have to travel to where the news is, and usually need a driving licence.
On some stories, journalists can find themselves working outdoors in all weathers. They may encounter hostile or aggressive people at times.
Salaries may start at around £12,000.
There are thought to be up to 80,000 journalists in the UK. There are opportunities all over the country, with a concentration of news organisations in major cities.
The main employers are:
While opportunities are abundant, the large number of journalism and media courses means that competition for jobs is still keen. Enthusiasm and work experience count for a lot with employers. It is a good idea to show commitment by looking for a short work placement in a newsroom and to compile a portfolio of published work.
Vacancies are advertised in the employers' publications and websites. The Guardian (on Mondays) and the trade publication Press Gazette carry many journalist vacancies, as do websites such as www.holdthefrontpage.co.uk.
Most journalists today gain a degree before starting work. Most have also completed a vocational pre-entry or postgraduate training course.
Degrees may be in any subject. It is not essential to have a degree in journalism, although this may offer practical experience.
Many universities offer courses in media studies or similar subjects. It is important to be sure that the course covers the right practical skills and context, and preferably includes some work experience. Suitable courses are accredited and listed by the National Council for the Training of Journalists (NCTJ), the Periodicals Training Council (PTC) and the Broadcast Journalism Training Council (BJTC).
For a degree, the usual minimum requirements are two A levels/three H grades, plus five GCSE's/S grades (A-C/1-3), or equivalent qualifications.
Most practical journalism courses last for an academic year. Some colleges run 'fast-track' courses, lasting 12 to 22 weeks.
For pre-entry journalism courses, the requirements vary. Course providers are likely to ask for either a first degree, or two A levels/H grades and five GCSE's/S grades (A-C/1-3), including English.
Trainees are normally taken on by a newspaper or magazine for a two-year contract, with a probationary period of three to six months. Trainees without a pre-entry qualification may be expected study on day release for NCTJ exams, including shorthand and law.
Some big news groups, including the BBC, Trinity Mirror and Johnston Press, run in-house training schemes. Some national newspapers also have schemes. Competition for places is fierce.
Journalists may study for an NVQ/SVQ in Journalism at Level 4.
A variety of training providers, including the National Union of Journalists (NUJ), offer short courses to help journalists learn new skills and adapt to changing technologies.
Laboratory technicians carry out routine laboratory tests and perform a variety of technical support functions to help scientists, technologists and others with their work. They can work in research and development, scientific analysis and testing, education and manufacturing.
They are employed in a wide range of scientific fields which affect almost every aspect of our lives.
A journalist must have:
In local organisations journalists may go on to lead a team of district reporters, to specialise in a field such as crime or business reporting, or to work on the news desk. With more training they may become sub-editors.
It is common to advance by changing employers to a larger-circulation publication, perhaps a regional or national daily paper. There are opportunities to work abroad for news outlets with global coverage.
Newspaper editors, who control the editorial operation and act as the public face of the newspaper in a community, are usually journalists who have gained wide experience.
It is possible to move from print journalism to TV and radio news.
Some journalists move into press and public relations work in the communications departments of business, public or charity organisations.
Broadcast Journalism Training Council (BJTC),
c/o Secretary, 18 Miller's Close, Rippingale near Bourne,
Lincolnshire PE10 0TH
Tel: 01778 440025
National Council for the Training of Journalists (NCTJ),
The New Granary, Station Road, Newport,
Saffron Walden CB11 3PL
Tel: 01799 544014
National Union of Journalists (NUJ),
Headland House, 308-312 Gray's Inn Road
London WC1X 8DP
Tel: 020 7278 7916
Periodicals Training Council (PTC),
c/o Periodical Publishers Association,
Queens House, 28 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JR
Tel: 020 7404 4166
Additional resources for job seekers and those already in a job.