Creative copywriters are employed by agencies both permanently and on a freelance basis to develop advertising concepts. They mainly deliver the words and verbal content that accompanies the visual elements. Agency copywriters usually work in close partnership with art directors and have lots of input to the visual elements. Many advertising agencies appoint them as a creative team.
The types of projects and clients vary widely, although some copywriters may specialise in an industry sector. They may also specialise in producing copy for:
Above the line advertising - which uses mass media like TV, cinema, interactive media, posters and radio scripts to promote brands.
Below the line advertising - which uses less conventional methods that focus on direct means of communication, like brochures, leaflets, press advertisements and direct mail.
The copywriter is responsible for taking a client's advertising brief and generating original copy ideas that grab the attention of the target audience. This can include creating straplines, slogans, body copy, jingles and scripts. Usually working on multiple projects, the typical creative process can involve:
Accuracy is essential. The copywriter and art director are accountable for checking all the content being advertised is truthful and complies with codes of advertising practice. Although proofreaders may examine the final copy, copywriters are also responsible for checking spelling and grammar.
Copywriters have to be flexible, as their work is very deadline driven. Most work Monday to Friday, although the creative thinking process can mean copywriters rarely switch off completely. Work frequently extends into evenings and weekends. Part-time, permanent contracts are hard to find. However, freelance opportunities are common, with many creative copywriters working remotely from home.
Although mainly office based, copywriters and art directors may undertake research in public areas, visiting different locations to seek inspiration. They may also visit client offices. Attending photo and film shoots and audio recording studios is likely with some agencies.
The creative environment is often very informal, with relaxed dress code. However, copywriting can be a stressful and demanding career with increased competition to create something truly unique.
Junior copywriters can earn between £18,000 and £22,000 a year in London.
Around 1,100 agency creative copywriters are employed in the UK. Many more work on a freelance basis. While these figures are not specific to the copywriting role, 70% of the total advertising workforce is in London. The next largest proportion is 6.3% in the North West. Larger agencies may employ as many as 20 copywriting/art direction teams. Other centres for advertising include Birmingham, Bristol, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Leeds, Newcastle and Manchester.
Entry is highly competitive. Large businesses with in-house marketing teams often employ copywriters to produce business-to-business and direct marketing literature. This can be a route into agency work.
There are very few formal training schemes, although agencies do offer summer internships and work placements to degree students. Many copywriters are hired in partnership with a creative art director. Such partnerships may be formed on courses. Taking on unpaid placements and demonstrating skills is the most common route into junior positions. Agencies expect copywriters to present a 'book', or portfolio, of work that shows evidence of creativity and innovation.
The Institute of Practitioners in Advertising (IPA) have a scheme allowing students to post their CV's on the IPA website (www.ipa.co.uk) between June and September each year. Their Graduate Recruitment Agency Factfile lists member agencies with structured recruitment programmes and is an excellent starting point for those wishing to make a speculative approach to agencies.
Job vacancies may be advertised in Campaign, Creative Review, The Drum and in national newspapers. Many are published on the internet, including on the IPA website and specialist creative forums like www.mad.co.uk.
There are no set entry requirements. However, many entrants have an HND, Foundation degree or degree in advertising or design. Other areas, such as journalism, marketing, media or English can be equally useful.
Creative ability is vital for this job and creative directors may be keen to encourage talented writers from any academic background. An applicant's portfolio of work may be as important as their qualifications.
Entry requirements to these courses vary, but minimum entry requirements are typically:
There are postgraduate degrees and diplomas in advertising. Entry is usually with a first degree.
The Design and Art Directors Association (D&AD) runs advertising workshops, which can be a way of developing skills, meeting like-minded people and making useful contacts. These are held in London, Leeds, Manchester, Glasgow and Edinburgh. See www.dandad.org for dates and further details.
Initial training is likely to be in-house guidance from more experienced colleagues and learning on the job. Attending external courses and seminars is usually encouraged.
Some agencies may require entrants to take the IPA Foundation Certificate, which is an online learning course culminating in a two-hour exam. This is designed to give an overview of advertising and the specific roles within the industry.
All people employed in this field will be expected to keep up-to-date with industry trends and standards by reading relevant publications.
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An advertising creative copywriter/director should:
Junior copywriters may be promoted to 'middleweight' and then senior 'heavyweight' copywriter positions. To reach the position of creative director, copywriters usually need at least five to ten years experience working on high-profile advertising campaigns and some industry awards. Copywriters will often move with their advertising art director partner.
Those working in smaller agencies may have to move location and employers to progress. Many successful copywriters move into freelance work, either sourcing their own client list or signing up to agencies that place copywriters and media professionals. There may be some overseas opportunities, particularly for copywriters skilled in writing for specific industry sectors, such as IT, telecommunications or finance.
The Advertising Association, 7th Floor,
Artillery House, 11-19 Artillery Row, London SW1P 1RT
Tel: 020 7340 1100
The Chartered Institute of Marketing,
Moor Hall, Cookham, Maidenhead SL6 9QH
Tel: 01628 427500
The Design and Art Directors Association (D&AD),
9 Graphite Square, Vauxhall Walk, London SE11 5EE
Tel: 020 7840 1111
Institute of Practitioners in Advertising (IPA),
44 Belgrave Square, London SW1X 8QS
Tel: 020 7235 7020
Young Creatives Network (YCN), First Floor,
81 Cannon Street Road, London E1 2LX
Tel: 020 7702 0700
Additional resources for job seekers and those already in a job.