Lifeguards patrol places where the public go swimming, including indoor and outdoor pools, beaches and lakes. They are responsible for making sure that people are safe in and near the water.
Every swimming pool establishment has a pool safety operating procedure (PSOP) which tells staff how the pool is run day to day and what a lifeguard has to do in an emergency.
The daily duties of a pool lifeguard are likely to include:
In order to maintain their concentration, lifeguards usually spend only a set period of time patrolling the pool before swapping with colleagues and moving on to another job or area to patrol. Teamwork is very important.
In some pools, lifeguards may also spend time on other duties such as:
Beach lifeguards work in teams patrolling popular stretches of the coast, advising people when and where they can swim safely and making rescues when necessary.
A key task is for a beach lifeguard is to make sure that people do not stray outside safe areas where there may be hazards, such as submerged rocks and strong currents. These areas are often marked out using a series of flags on the beach or are roped off using buoys.
They need to pay special attention to inflatables such as dinghies, which can be easily carried out to sea. They also need to know about local tides.
They may also be involved in hiring out surfboards and rowing boats to the public.
All lifeguards also play an important role in educating people about water safety and some beach lifeguards are employed to give talks to school children during the winter.
Pool lifeguards work five days a week including evenings, weekends and public holidays. Shifts are often on a rota.
Around one third of lifeguards work part time or on a casual basis. Many work as volunteers.
Work for beach lifeguards is seasonal. The full season last twenty weeks from May to September, but many work an eight-week period that covers the school holidays. It is common for beach lifeguards to spend the winter working at a swimming pool.
Most pool lifeguards work indoors; the pool area is wet, noisy and humid. Some pools are outdoors and lifeguards may also work at rivers and lakes.
Lifeguards working outdoors need to take sun safety precautions.
Lifeguards working on a casual basis are usually paid between £6 and £9 an hour.
Starting salaries for full-time lifeguards are usually £11,500 to £14,000. With more experience, lifeguards may earn £15,000 or more.
These figures can be increased by overtime and payments for extra responsibilities such as coaching duties.
Seasonal lifeguards typically earn around £200 a week.
There are over 75,000 qualified lifeguards in the UK, working in public swimming pools, leisure centres, schools, colleges, hotels, holiday centres and private fitness centres.
There are also around 1,000 beach lifeguards. Most are employed by local authorities or private companies to cover local beaches.
There is usually a strong demand for lifeguards, especially temporary lifeguards to work during peak times such as school holidays, summer and weekends.
Many more people work as pool lifeguards than on beaches, and around five per cent of lifeguards are self-employed.
There are some opportunities to work abroad with holiday companies.
No educational qualifications are required, but many employers expect a good standard of English and maths. A sports-related qualification, such as an A level in PE or a fitness-related NVQ is also useful.
To work as a pool lifeguard, a candidate must be aged at least 16, physically fit and a strong swimmer. They must hold one of the following qualifications:
The National Pool Lifeguard Qualification (NPLQ) which is awarded by the Royal Life Saving Society UK (RLSS). Courses are run at local pools and approved training centres. It is divided into two units, life saving and swimming pool supervision (including rescue and first aid), and the application of supervision and rescue skills in the workplace.
The Swimming Teachers' Association (STA) Level 2 Certificate for the National Rescue Standard - Pool Lifeguard. The award takes 40 hours which may be undertaken as an intensive course or spread over a longer period.
The STA runs similar courses for private leisure and health clubs. There are also awards aimed directly at young people who are still at school.
Courses are available all over the country.
To work as a beach lifeguard, candidates must be aged at least 18 and have either The National Beach Lifeguard Qualification or the Assistant Beach Lifesaver Award from the RLSS.
The National Rescue Standard Beach Lifeguard Awards are run through clubs by the Surf Life Saving Association of Great Britain. It trains beach lifeguards in beach- and sea-rescue techniques and in managing and supervising beaches.
The Royal National Lifeboat Institute (RNLI) also trains beach lifeguards. Their selection for training involves a fitness test.
The Institute of Sport and Recreation Management runs a series of National Pool Plant Operative awards, covering water treatment and pool plant operation.
Apprenticeships and Advanced Apprenticeships provide structured training with an employer. As an apprentice you must be paid at least £95 per week; you may well be paid more. A recent survey found that the average wage for apprentices was £170 a week. Your pay will depend on the sector in which you work, your age, the area where you live and the stage at which you have arrived in the Apprenticeship.
Entry to Employment (e2e) can help to prepare those who are not yet ready for an Apprenticeship. In addition, Young Apprenticeships may be available for 14- to 16-year-olds. More information is available from a Connexions personal adviser or at www.apprenticeships.org.uk.
There are different arrangements for Apprenticeships in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.
Both the National Pool Lifeguard Qualification and the National Rescue Standard - Pool Lifeguard are valid for two years and can be renewed after a successful assessment.
Both awards can also be used as evidence towards an NVQ Level 2 in sport and recreation.
The Royal National Lifeboat Institute trains beach lifeguards in the use of specialist equipment such as inflatable rescue boats, rescue watercraft (jet skis) and quad bikes.
Laboratory technicians carry out routine laboratory tests and perform a variety of technical support functions to help scientists, technologists and others with their work. They can work in research and development, scientific analysis and testing, education and manufacturing.
They are employed in a wide range of scientific fields which affect almost every aspect of our lives.
With experience pool lifeguards can move on to become pool supervisors or assistant managers. Some gain swimming teaching or coaching qualifications and become swimming teachers.
They can also take other jobs in the leisure industry, such as senior recreation assistant, duty manager, or general pool manager.
There may be opportunities to work abroad.
Institute of Sport and Recreation Management (ISRM),
Sir John Beckwith Centre for Sport,
Loughborough LE11 3TU
Tel: 01509 226474
The Royal Life Saving Society UK (RLSS),
River House, High Street,
Broom, Warwickshire B50 4HN
Tel: 0300 3230 096
Royal National Lifeboat Institution,
West Quay Road, Poole, Dorset BH15 1HZ
Sport England, 3rd Floor,
Victoria House, Bloomsbury Square,
London WC1B 4SE
Tel: 020 727 31551
Surf Life Saving Great Britain,
Buckland House, Park 5, Harrier Way, Sowton, Exeter EX2 7HU
Tel: 01392 369111
Swimming Teachers' Association,
Anchor House, Birch Street,
Walsall WS2 8HZ
Tel: 01922 645097
Additional resources for job seekers and those already in a job.