Environmental science seeks to understand the natural world and, particularly, how it is affected by human activities. Environmental scientists have expertise in the physical environment (land, air and water) and the living environment (plants, animals and people).
Their work helps to ensure sustainable development by monitoring the state of the environment and developing and implementing practices that minimise the damage caused to the world and its resources. It addresses issues such as land management, conservation, climate change, flood control, population growth and alternative energy supplies. Increasing concern about these issues has resulted in a growth in environmental science.
An environmental scientist may work in a range of different areas, including:
Environmental scientists usually work as part of a team. They often advise colleagues or managers, some of whom may not have a scientific background, by writing reports or making presentations.
An increasing number of scientists work as consultants, as part of a firm or on a freelance basis. In many cases they are brought in to assist with environmental impact assessments, which are required for many developments before permission is granted.
The working hours and environment depend on the role. A few environmental scientists work from 9.00am to 5.00pm, Monday to Friday. However, particularly those who work as consultants may work longer hours. Project work may require intensive research or analysis involving extra hours.
Some work is likely to be carried out in an office or laboratory. Fieldwork may involve working in locations in the UK or abroad. These could range from construction sites in the UK to tropical rainforests, depending on the role.
A new entrant may earn around £15,000 a year whereas those with experience will earn around £27,000.
Environmental scientists are employed by a wide range of organisations. The main employers include local authorities, environmental agencies, water companies, consultancies, engineering and construction firms and environmental lobbying organisations. An increasing number of scientists work on a consultancy basis.
The number of environmental science posts is rising. However, competition is also increasing as more people undertake study in this field.
Work experience, either paid or voluntary, may help when applying for jobs. Experience on a placement may also be useful. It may be possible to volunteer for environmental charities or for a local council. StudentForce for Sustainability offers a national advice service on careers in sustainable development and arranges paid and voluntary placements in central and eastern England for young people.
Most entrants have a relevant degree. It is also possible to take a first degree in any science subject, followed by postgraduate study in a specialist area of environmental science.
There are many UK degree courses in environmental science and related subjects, such as sustainable development or environmental management. Successful applicants have often spent time working as volunteers for relevant organisations to show commitment to the subject.
To study for a first degree, candidates usually need at least two A levels and five GCSE's (A*-C). Relevant subjects include science, mathematics and geography. Alternative qualifications in relevant subjects may be accepted. Those without the usual qualifications can take an Access course.
Entry requirements may vary and applicants should check with individual colleges and universities.
A postgraduate degree requires a good first degree (usually a first or 2.1).
Degrees in environmental science cover techniques in research, field survey work and data analysis. Most courses offer fieldwork opportunities which can sometimes be abroad. Some courses include work placement experience.
A career as an environmental scientist requires a commitment to continuing professional development (CPD) in order to ensure that knowledge and skills are kept updated.
There are a number of professional bodies offering membership for environmental scientists, depending on their area of interest. These include the Institute of Environmental Management and Assessment, the Institute of Ecology and Environmental Management, the Chartered Institute of Water and Environmental Management, the Society for the Environment and the Institute for Environmental Science. Many also offer the opportunity to study for further qualifications.
Laboratory technicians carry out routine laboratory tests and perform a variety of technical support functions to help scientists, technologists and others with their work. They can work in research and development, scientific analysis and testing, education and manufacturing.
They are employed in a wide range of scientific fields which affect almost every aspect of our lives.
An environmental scientist needs:
Environmental scientists may progress to take on project and team management responsibilities. Depending on the size of the organisation, they may need to change employer in order to progress.
They might also choose to move into consultancy work or into research or teaching in a university.
There may be opportunities for environmental scientists to work abroad.
British Geological Survey,
Kingsley Dunham Centre, Keyworth,
Nottingham NG12 5GG
Tel: 0115 936 3100
Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA),
Customer Contact Unit, Eastbury House, 30-34 Albert Embankment,
London SE1 7TL
Tel: 0845 933 5577
The Environment Agency, National Recruitment Service,
Richard Fairclough House, Knutsford Road, Latchford,
Warrington WA4 1HT
Tel: 01925 542050
The Institute of Ecology and Environmental Management (IEEM),
43 Southgate Street, Winchester SO23 9EH
Tel: 01962 868626
The Institute of Environmental Management & Assessment (IEMA),
St Nicholas House, 70 Newport, Lincoln LN1 3DP
Tel: 01522 540069
The Institution of Environmental Sciences (IES),
Suite 7, 38 Ebury Street, London SW1W 0LU
Tel: 020 7730 5516
Society for the Environment,
The Old School House, Long Street, Atherstone CV9 1AH
Tel: 0845 337 2951
Additional resources for job seekers and those already in a job.