Archaeologists learn about the past from material remains, including fragments of bone or pottery, buried structures or microscopic organisms.
As well as taking part in excavations ('digs'), archaeologists preserve, record, analyse and interpret archaeological remains, historic sites and monuments. They may also become involved in conservation, publicity and educational activities such as the interpretation and display of finds in museums, or teaching in universities, colleges or schools.
Archaeologists use a wide range of equipment, from basic pointing trowels (essential for excavations) to sophisticated laboratory instruments and computers. Computers are used to create films, simulations and virtual reality, and the use of computer-aided design (CAD) and geographical information systems (GIS) are increasingly common. They also use many investigative techniques such as:
Sites are recorded using photography, detailed notes and drawings, and finds are analysed by grouping, identifying and classifying them, possibly involving research and desk-based assessment. Site reports are produced, detailing what was found and where, often using CAD and GIS to record and interpret finds.
Working hours vary, but many archaeologists work a standard 35 hours a week, Monday to Friday. On excavations, hours are more variable and overtime may be possible, particularly as the work is often away from home, sometimes overseas. Part-time work and short-term contracts are also common, especially when starting out. Many community and educational activities take place outside standard hours and might involve weekend and evening work.
The workplace and working conditions are also very varied. Some archaeologists (especially more senior personnel) work indoors, but excavations usually mean working outdoors in all weathers, often involving kneeling and working in cramped, muddy conditions. Protective clothing is usually needed. A driving licence may be an advantage.
Starting salaries are around £13,500 a year.
About 6000 people in the UK earn their living as archaeologists, with around 40 per cent working for small organisations such as planning consultancies or independent specialists carrying out field investigations and research. Other employers include:
University archaeology departments and research groups.
National or local government, including local authority museums.
Archaeological contractors, including contracting units attached to universities.
National bodies and heritage agencies such as English Heritage, Historic Scotland, CADW: Welsh Historic Monuments, The Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland, and the Environment and Heritage Service (Northern Ireland).
Charities such as the National Trust, and archaeological organisations such as the Council for British Archaeology (CBA) and the Institute of Field Archaeologists (IFA).
The number of professional archaeologists is increasing, and further growth is expected. Entry to this profession is highly competitive and recent growth in undergraduate intake is not matched by the number of jobs available.
Vacancies may be advertised in national papers such as The Guardian (in Wednesday's environmental section), in specialised periodicals such as Current Archaeology and on websites such as:
The IFA's Jobs Information Service www.archaeologists.net
The British Archaeological Jobs Resource www.bajr.org
Oxford Archaeology www.oxfordarch.co.uk
Around 90 per cent of archaeologists are graduates.
Archaeology can be studied as a single honours degree (BA, BSc or Scottish MA) or combined with subjects such as ancient or medieval history, geography or anthropology.
Although a non-relevant degree, such as biology or geography, does not necessarily prevent entry to this profession, degrees in archaeology, history or heritage management are more likely to increase employment opportunities.
Archaeology is a popular subject, so entry to a degree course requires good GCSE's/S grades (A-C/1-3) and high grades in three A levels/three to four H grades, or equivalent, although universities are usually flexible about subject requirements. It is important to check entry requirements carefully.
Entry without a degree is possible, although increasingly rare. A few institutions offer HNC/HND, Foundation degree or diploma courses in archaeology.
Pre-entry work experience, in addition to the fieldwork experience gained through a degree course, shows commitment and a genuine interest in becoming a professional archaeologist. This experience is most likely to be gained through voluntary work, and although it is getting increasingly difficult to find opportunities for volunteering on excavations, some archaeological organisations will take on volunteers to help with finds cataloguing or recording. There are a number of training excavations taking paying students, and the Council for British Archaeology (CBA) Briefing is the best source of information on these.
Training tends to be through short, specialist courses relevant to the particular job, and run by organisations such as English Heritage. The IFA is currently developing a process of Personal Development Planning (PDP).
Archaeologists need to continue to read around their chosen subject, as ongoing research and scientific breakthroughs mean that practitioners need to keep up to date with more than just their own specialist area.
Laboratory technicians carry out routine laboratory tests and perform a variety of technical support functions to help scientists, technologists and others with their work. They can work in research and development, scientific analysis and testing, education and manufacturing.
They are employed in a wide range of scientific fields which affect almost every aspect of our lives.
An archaeologist should:
Career progression can be slow in the profession because of the limited opportunities available. It can be difficult to become established, and the early years are likely to involve a series of short-term contracts.
A career in archaeology rarely follows a defined promotional ladder, but a typical career path might involve two years as a digger, five to ten years as a site supervisor, followed by a move into project management or a managerial role. Because there are so many specialisms, archaeology does provide opportunities to move into other areas with specialist skills.
Once experienced and well established, archaeologists may move into higher education teaching and research.
Council for British Archaeology (CBA),
St Mary's House, 66 Bootham, York YO30 7BZ
Tel: 01904 671417
CADW: Welsh Historic Monuments, Welsh Assembly Government,
Plas Carew, Unit 5/7 Cefn Coed, Parc Nantgarw, Cardiff CF15 7QQ
Tel: 01443 336000
Creative and Cultural Skills, 4th Floor, Lafone House,
The Leathermarket, Weston Street, London SE1 3HN
Tel: 020 7015 1847
English Heritage, PO Box 569, Swindon SN2 2YP
Tel: 0870 333 1181
Environment and Heritage Service (Northern Ireland),
Built Heritage, Waterman House, 5-33 Hill Street, Belfast BT1 2LA
Tel: 028 9054 3145
Historic Scotland, Longmore House,
Salisbury Place, Edinburgh EH9 1SH
Tel: 0131 668 8600
Institute of Field Archaeologists (IFA), School of Human and Environmental Services,
University of Reading, Whiteknights, PO Box 227, Reading RG6 6AB
Tel: 0118 378 6446
National Trust, Heelis, Kemble Drive, Swindon SN2 2NA
Tel: 01793 817400
Royal Commission on Ancient and Historical Monuments in Scotland (RCAHMS),
John Sinclair House, 16 Bernard Terrace, Edinburgh EH8 9NX
Tel: 0131 662 1456
Additional resources for job seekers and those already in a job.